Từ xa xưa Hàn Quốc đã là 1 quốc gia chỉ có một dân tộc duy nhất. Gần đây do có nhiều người nước ngoài nhập cư nên Hàn Quốc đang chuyển mình theo xu hướng một quốc gia đa dân tộc nhưng về cơ bản vẫn mang đặc điểm của 1 quốc gia dân tộc đơn nhất. Với xu thế này, chủ nghĩa dân tộc cực đoan đã từng tồn tại ở Hàn Quốc đang dần dần biến mất, thay vào đó là ý thức tiếp nhận người nước ngoài một cách tích cực và cởi mở hơn.
Dân tộc Hàn
- Định nghĩa
Là dân tộc sống chủ yếu trên bán đảo Hàn Quốc và một phần ở phía Đông Mãn Châu, có chung văn hoá và cùng sử dụng tiếng Hàn. Về mặt nhân chủng, người Hàn Quốc thuộc chủng tộc da vàng và có ngôn ngữ thuộc hệ Uralaltai.
- Nguồn gốc
Khởi nguồn của dân tộc Hàn Quốc là tộc Yemec, thuộc tộc Tongus của châu Á cổ đại. Tộc Yemec vào thời kỳ Đồ đá mới đã di cư từ đất liền ra phía Đông rồi định cư ở phía Đông sông Heirong và vùng thấp của bán đảo Hàn. Các văn tự cổ của Trung Quốc đều gọi dân tộc Hàn là “Dong y”. Vào thời cổ đại, dân tộc Hàn được xem là tộc Totem sùng bái gấu, sinh sống bằng cả trồng trọt, săn bắn và hái lượm nhưng dần chuyển sang canh tác nông nghiệp.
Quốc gia đầu tiên trên bán đảo là nước Triều Tiên cổ do Dangun thành lập vào năm 2333 trước Công nguyên.
Dân cư (số liệu năm 2003)
- Tổng dân số : 75.450.000 người : 75,45 Mio.
- Dân số Hàn Quốc : 48.050.000 người : 48,05 Mio.
- Dân số Bắc Triều Tiên : 22.400.000 ngườ : 22,4 Mio.
- Kiều dân : khoảng 5.000.000 người : ca. 5 Mio.
Người nhập cư
- Sự thay đổi về khái niệm ‘một dân tộc’
Trong vài năm gần đây, số lượng người nhập cư vào Hàn Quốc đang tăng lên rất nhanh, vì thế khái niệm ‘một dân tộc’ đang chuyển đổi theo ý nghĩa cởi mở và thông thoáng hơn, không quan trọng màu da và nơi xuất thân mà tất cả đều được xem như 1 phần của cộng đồng và văn hoá Hàn Quốc.
- Người nhập cư theo diện kết hôn và người lao động nước ngoài
Người nhập cư có thể chia thành 2 nhóm : người nhập cư theo diện kết hôn và người lao động nước ngoài. Những người này sang Hàn Quốc với mong muốn đổi đời và đang trở thành những thành viên quan trọng trong xã hội Hàn Quốc. Theo điều tra của Cục thống kê Hàn Quốc, chỉ riêng năm 2006 đã có 39.700 cuộc kết hôn giữa người nước ngoài và người Hàn, chiếm 11,9 % tổng số các cuộc kết hôn trong năm đó.
- Số lượng người nước ngoài đăng ký cư trú chính thức
* Nếu tính cả số lượng người nước ngoài chưa đăng ký cư trú thì số người tạm trú tại Hàn Quốc vào năm 2007 là hơn 1 triệu người và 20% trong số đó là cư trú bất hợp pháp.
24 thoughts on “Dân tộc Hàn Quốc”
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